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The New Paths to Inclusion Network is a European project.
In this project partners from 13 European countries work together.
Their guiding question is: How can we change services for people with disabilities so that more people can live a good life?

Theory U guides The New Paths to InclUsion Network.
We use tools from Theory U:

  • To look for good ideas
  • To build up a network of people working for inclusion
  • To make sense of what we are learning
  • To figure out how to share what we have learned

People can use the tools and help others use them without studying Theory U itself.
This short introduction is for people who want to start learning about Theory U.
Theory U is not just about changing things for people with disabilities. It is a way to build a better world for everyone. There is far more to Theory U than a short introduction can cover.

To find out more, please click here. 

The work of the New Paths to InclUsion Network is based on Theory U. What is Theory U? Here's an esay-to-understand explanation!

Theory U:

  • Starts with a search for new ways of understanding (Sensing),
  • Continues with discovering the best possible future (Presencing), and
  • Proceeds by acting on this different kind of learning to move into that future (Realizing).

U theory

Theory U offers many practical tools to develop person-centred planning, which you can find below.

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

Overview

(Guided) Journaling leads participants through a self reflective process following the different phases of the U - process. It allows participants to access deeper levels of self-knowledge, and to connect this knowledge to concrete actions. In the sensing phase it can support immediate recording and processing what has been learned through observing and listening to others.

In combination with other forms of deep reflection and contemplation (e.g. guided meditation, visualising and embodiment practices as well as individual time of solitude in Nature) it can strongly support individuals and groups into the ‘presencing’ phase. Partners of the NPI project were asked to record their reflections through journaling throughout the project. Journaling was used formally with guided questions as indicated below and informally to record reflections following an exercise such as the dialogue walk as well as reminding participants to continually reflect and record any significant insights which emerge for them.

To find out more, please click here.

The way we listen is fateful. It makes the difference between a person-centered planning meeting that just re-cycles old news while it does the service system’s business and a process that reveals new possibilities and energizes commitment to action that will change the lives of everyone in the planning circle in good ways.

Use the table (you can see it by click on the link below) to reflect on the level of listening* you experienced in a person-centered planning meeting. Stop after the meeting and see which of the statements comes closest to describing how it went for you, what you noticed about the whole group’s listening, and what you came away with. Journal about what you learn from your reflection.

To find out more, please click here.

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

Overview

(Guided) Journaling leads participants through a self reflective process following the different phases of the U - process. It allows participants to access deeper levels of self-knowledge, and to connect this knowledge to concrete actions. In the sensing phase it can support immediate recording and processing what has been learned through observing and listening to others.

In combination with other forms of deep reflection and contemplation (e.g. guided meditation, visualising and embodiment practices as well as individual time of solitude in Nature) it can strongly support individuals and groups into the ‘presencing’ phase. Partners of the NPI project were asked to record their reflections through journaling throughout the project. Journaling was used formally with guided questions as indicated below and informally to record reflections following an exercise such as the dialogue walk as well as reminding participants to continually reflect and record any significant insights which emerge for them.

 

Purpose:

Guided journaling leads practitioners through a process of self-reflection that moves through the U-process. This process allows participants to step into a deeper level of reflection than in an un-guided journaling process, and identify concrete action steps.

Principles:

  • Journaling is a personal process. Never ask participants to share their journaling notes in public.
  • After completing a journaling practice you may create an opportunity to reflect on the experience of journaling. Again: emphasize that participants decide what they want to share.
  • Journaling means that you think through the writing not to think and reflect, and then write up the reflection. With the instruction emphasize that participants should just start writing and see what emerges.

Uses and Outcomes:

  • Access deeper levels of self-reflection & knowledge
  • Learn how to use Journaling as a reflective tool
  • Connect self-reflection to concrete action steps
  • Use with…Awareness or embodiment practices

 

Example:

The journaling questions below were used within our 3 day Presencing Workshop as an activity of deep reflection. Considerable thought had been given to the location of this workshop to provide an environment which would be conducive to reflection and exploration and we were fortunate enough to find a beach location outside Lisbon at reasonable cost.

Participants were engaged in exploration of their personal journeys of purpose in their work. Following a series of sensing activities, to raise awareness and explore their own current situations, the questions were intended to take them further towards a deeper understanding. The activity was followed by inviting participants to find a quiet place for reflection and thought.  Participants moved outside of the building into the grounds and onto the beach and could be seen walking or sitting deep in thought. They were not asked for feedback on their return however it was clear that many were moved by the process.

Julie Lunt – a project member describes her experiences of journaling as an emerging realisation that her work, which had for many years been inside organisations either training or working organisational change in person centred practice, was not the place to be if she was to be a real change maker towards inclusion. She had known for many years that organisations create a barrier to inclusion and often struggled to support people to be a real part of their community. What she had recorded in her journal brought to the front of her thinking, that what she was doing was reinforcing this situation and if she was to make a change she needed to shift the focus of my work away from training within organisations providing services for people with disabilities to becoming more community focused. This was just the beginning of a change in thinking which continued to evolve within further workshops in the project and the development of prototypes. She is now part of a team in her local town involved in the development of a summer festival and seeking to highlight how people with disabilities are fully involved and contributing. She has also begun working with people who have a personal budget, their families and support teams using ‘Presencing’ activities to explore the future for the person and how to support them in that future.

 

Set Up:

People & Place

  • Journaling Practice can be used in groups of any size. The exercise follows the co-sensing phase meaning that participants have already moved through the left side of the U-Process.
  • It is important that the room is quiet and no noises or other distractions in the environment interrupt the participants.

 

Time

  • A minimum of 45 minutes is required. Depending of the context this process can take up to 60-90 min.

Materials

  • Pen and paper for each participant

 

Sequence

Step 1: Preparation

Prepare a quiet space that allows each participant to enter into a process of self-reflection without distractions.

Step 2: Guided Journaling Questions

Read one question after the other; invite the participants to journal guided by the respective question. Go one by one through the questions. Move to the next question when you sense that the majority of the group is ready. Don’t give participants too much time. It is important to get into a flow and not to think too much.

Guided Journaling Questions:

  1. Challenges: Look at yourself from outside as if you were another person: What are the 3 or 4 most important challenges or tasks that your life (work and non-work) currently presents?
  2. Self: Write down 3 or 4 important facts about yourself. What are the important accomplishments you have achieved or competencies you have developed in your life (examples: raising children; finishing your education; being a good listener)?
  3. Emerging Self: What 3 or 4 important aspirations, areas of interest, or undeveloped talents would you like to place more focus on in your future journey (examples: writing a novel or poems; starting a social movement; taking your current work to a new level)?
  4. Frustration: What about your current work and/or personal life frustrates you the most?
  5. Energy: What are your most vital sources of energy? What do you love?
  6. Inner resistance: What is holding you back? Describe 2 or 3 recent situations (in your work or personal life) when you noticed one of the following three voices kicking in, preventing you from exploring the situation you were in more deeply:
    1. Voice of Judgment: shutting down your open mind (downloading instead of inquiring)
    2. Voice of Cynicism: shutting down your open heart (disconnecting instead of relating)
    3. Voice of Fear: shutting down your open will (holding on to the past or the present instead of letting go)
  7. The crack: Over the past couple of days and weeks, what new aspects of your Self have you noticed? What new questions and themes are occurring to you now?
  8. Your community: Who makes up your community, and what are their highest hopes in regard to your future journey? Choose three people with different perspectives on your life and explore their hopes for your future (examples: your family; your friends; a parentless child on the street with no access to food, shelter, safety, or education). What might you hope for if you were in their shoes and looking at your life through their eyes?
  9. Helicopter: Watch yourself from above (as if in a helicopter). What are you doing? What are you trying to do in this stage of your professional and personal journey?
  10. Imagine you could fast-forward to the very last moments of your life, when it is time for you to pass on. Now look back on your life’s journey as a whole. What would you want to see at that moment? What footprint do you want to leave behind on the planet? What would you want to be remembered for by the people who live on after you?
  11. From that (future) place, look back at your current situation as if you were looking at a different person. Now try to help that other person from the viewpoint of your highest future Self. What advice would you give? Feel and sense what the advice is and then write it down.
  12. Now return again to the present and crystallize what it is that you want to create: your vision and intention for the next 3-5 years. What vision and intention do you have for yourself and your work? What are some essential core elements of the future that you want to create in your personal, professional, and social life? Describe as concretely as possible the images and elements that occur to you.
  13. Letting-go: What would you have to let go of in order to bring your vision into reality? What is the old stuff that must die? What is the old skin (behaviors, thought processes, etc.) that you need to shed?
  14. Seeds: What in your current life or context provides the seeds for the future that you want to create? Where do you see your future beginning?
  15. Prototyping: Over the next three months, if you were to prototype a microcosm of the future in which you could discover “the new” by doing something, what would that prototype look like?
  16. People: Who can help you make your highest future possibilities a reality? Who might be your core helpers and partners?
  17. Action: If you were to take on the project of bringing your intention into reality, what practical first steps would you take over the next 3 to 4 days?

Step 3: Reflection on the Practice

Split up the group into pairs, and invite participants to reflect on their experience. Again, mention that journaling is private and that each participant decides want she or he wants to share.

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

Purpose

The purpose of a dialogue interview is to gain a deeper understanding of other perspectives by creating conversations that allow reflection and thinking together and are open to the emergence of insight and creative spark.

When conditions are right, dialogue interviews allow a direct experienceof common purpose and deeper insight.

Principles for Good interviews

Intention: Take time before you begin to clear your mind and establish a sense of openness and an intention of serving andlearning.

To find out more, please click here.

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

What is a Case Clinc

Case-Clinics are largely a group based intervision tool that is most often used during the prototyping phase of the U-process. It guides a team or a group of peers through a process in which a case giver presents a case, and a group of 3-4 peers or team members help as coaches based on the principles of the U-Process and process consultation. 

Case Clinics allow participants to:

  • Generate new ways to look at a challenge or question.
  • Develop new approaches for responding to this.

Purpose

To access the wisdom and experience of peers and to help a peer respond to an important and immediate leadership challenge in a better and more innovative way. 

 

To find out more, please click here.

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

Purpose

The purpose of a dialogue interview is to gain a deeper understanding of other perspectives by creating conversations that allow reflection and thinking together and are open to the emergence of insight and creative spark.

When conditions are right, dialogue interviews allow a direct experienceof common purpose and deeper insight.

Principles for Good interviews

Intention: Take time before you begin to clear your mind and establish a sense of openness and an intention of serving andlearning.

  • Create transparency and trust about the purpose and the process ofthe interview.
  • Suspend your voice of judgment to see the situation through the eyes of the person you are with. What matters at this point is not whetheryou agree or approve but that you learn what the other person sees, feelsand thinks. Cultivate a sense if curiosity and
  • Access your ignorance –open your mind: As the conversation unfolds, pay attention to and trust the questions that occur to you; don’t beafraid to ask simple questions or questions you think may reveal a lack ofsome basic knowledge.
  • Access your appreciative listening –open your heart. Connect to theother person with your mind and heart wide open; thoroughly appreciatethe story that you hear unfolding; put yourself in the other person’sshoes.
  • Access your listening from the future: Listen for the best futurepossibility for the person and the situation at hand. Be open to insight: new ways to understand what the situation calls
  • Go with the flow: Let go of preconceptions, old ideas andconcepts.
  • Focus first on What questions, not Why or confrontational questions;you want to get into a flow, not into adebate.
  •  Generative silence: Probably the most important and least visible contribution: offering the highest level of attention and open presence toallow silence to slow the pace and allow access to deeper aspects of thestory.
  • Ask emerging questions: Pay attention to and ask about important possible connections among parts of the story you arehearing.

 

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

Social Presencing Theatre (SPT) is part of the Theory U methodology. It is designed to support us in accessing a deeper level of knowledge: the wisdom of the heart and the body.

In the current time of disruptive change we notice that our old ways of relating and organizing society are not helpful when we try to meet the actual challenges on global and local levels. 

Many people sense the necessity to create new ways of relating, interacting and creating. Rather than holding onto habits of judgment and fear there is a rising wish to meet and relate in a healthier and more creative way that is mutually supportive.

SPT offers a practical approach to open up a space in which we practice to be beneficial to one another. It is a way to experience that all human beings have unique and rich wisdom. It is a method to co-create situations in which this wisdom can emerge naturally and crystalize into insights, innovations and fresh Ideas.

Wisdom is innate to all people and groups and arises when we take the time to listen to each other in a deeper way. 

Rather than focusing on problems the SPT practices invite us to communicate from a place of natural understanding (rather than mind activity). We pay less attention to what we think or know about a situation and more to what it physically feels like to BE in a situation.

 

To find out more, please click here

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

The dialogue walk is another tool which is proposed by the presencing institute during the Sensing phase and the movement down the U. The practice of dialogue walks can also be used at other stages e.g. the crystallising after the presencing and prior to the prototype creation phase as to explore emerging possibilities and to reaffirm ones vision and intention. In the New Paths to InclUsion project dialogue walks have been one of the most frequently used tools, to which most of the participants regularly where looking forward too. In many cases people have retold how going on a dialogue walk, seems such an easy to use and efficient tool to clarify ones thoughts with new insights and new ideas being a regular “side effect”.

To find out more, please click here.

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

To find out more, please click here.

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

The dialogue walk is another tool which is proposed by the presencing institute during the Sensing phase and the movement down the U. The practice of dialogue walks can also be used at other stages e.g. the crystallising after the presencing and prior to the prototype creation phase as to explore emerging possibilities and to reaffirm ones vision and intention. In the New Paths to InclUsion project dialogue walks have been one of the most frequently used tools, to which most of the participants regularly where looking forward too. In many cases people have retold how going on a dialogue walk, seems such an easy to use and efficient tool to clarify ones thoughts with new insights and new ideas being a regular “side effect”.

Intention:

The process itself is intended to take participants to a more attentive level of listening and to raise awareness and understanding from another perspective. The role of the listener is to focus completely on the words of their partner without making any interruption and to observe one`s own listening: am I paying attention, when do I notice thoughts coming, when do I feel the need to make a comment. As in every other form of mindfulness practice such reactions are seen as just a normal way of how we pay attention. The role in this exercise is to try to notice them without judgement, immediately letting them go and to redirect the full attention to the person speaking. Sometimes we have found it useful here to make the sole exception on this rule for comments to encourage the speaker to elaborate deeper on what is being said – but again this is actually an exception and can only be recommended for groups who have practised dialogue walks before. The role of the speaker is to become completely immersed within their own thoughts and to actually verbalise ones thinking in progress, so as reach a deeper understanding. If you are using dialogue walks within a corporate setting we can recommend that the dialogue partners represent different perspectives within the organisation.

Process:

A Dialogue-walk approximately takes 45-60 minutes. We do not recommend to cut short on that time. Sometimes participants consider this to be too long, for an activity that is mainly composed of walking, listening and talking. We have made the experience that it is helpful to frame the intention of this exercise clearly, and to explain that sufficient time is needed to move together beyond just providing information in order to reach a deeper point of reflection. Also consider time for a group debrief of the exercise. When a group is introduced to this activity for the first time we can also recommend giving a short introduction into the four levels of listening. Here we have made the experience that is more effective to do that after the dialogue walk and group-debrief – as it allows people then to directly relate concrete experiences they have made.

As a facilitator you introduce the intention and the different roles of the person who is listening and the one who is talking. Pairs are intended to take turns. Meaning that each person has a time of about 15-20 minutes (depending on the time budget that you allocate – we recommend the same amount of time for each person plus a debrief/dialogue between the two walking partners) in which he/she just listens or just talks, while the other person does the opposite. Before the partners change roles advise them to just keep on walking together for 2-3 minutes of silence until the second person starts to talk. This moment of stillness is a very critical element that also should not be left out. Another “rule” of the exercise is to advise the pairs to go for a walk – hence dialogue walk – and to the largest extent possible refrain from looking at each other. This is usually one of the strangest elements of this exercise form people, as it breaks so much with our habitual patterns of showing respect through looking in each others eyes. The intention behind this rule is twofold – for the listener not to be distracted my other non-verbal communication signals that the talker is offering (remember Watzlawick`s famous saying: “We can not not communicate”) and to focus solely on what he/she hears. For the person who is talking this rule should create a safer space to really offer one`s thoughts as unfiltered as possible thus allowing for a more open form of communication often leading to deeper insights. When both partners have taken both roles, you can advise to have a free dialogue about whatever emerges for them in that particular moment – thus really entering into a shared dialogue.

As a facilitator you can (re-)frame the questions to be addresses in the dialogue walk in order to fit the overall intention of the workshop of process. The questions should encourage people to share personal stories. Depending on the context it might be advisable to make a comment on both confidentiality of what is being heard and to affirm every participants firm right not to share any information that he/she feels does not belong to that particular setting – thus framing the exercise – like all other U-Tools – as an open invitation.

The questions of the dialogue may, can and will vary but should be designed to enable the persons story to develop and unfold in a natural progression, to reflect on the working situation and the desire for achievement. Ideally the 3-4 questions reflect a Mini-U, and guide the talker to a process of reflecting on one`s past, present, and future ambitions, observations, intentions, etc.

Three questions used in the multiplication workshop have been:

  • What has brought you to this work?
  • What has changed for you since you began this work?
  • Looking at my situation Now: If I could change one particular aspect of my work in supporting people with intellectual disabilities what would that be and why?

Before starting the whole group debrief, it is advisable to offer at first a few minutes of uninterrupted space, where you invite participants on returning to write any significant insights, experiences, observations in their personal journals / and/or a sheet provided for that purpose. For the group-debrief invite, openly and without forcing anybody to share new insights, what was important to them and how the have felt in the two different roles. 

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

Prototyping in the New Paths to InclUsion project:

Each of the project partners developed prototypes as a culmination of the multiplication workshop with the intention of creating new practices within their organisation which lead them closer to their objective of building inclusive opportunities through person centred practice. To do this partners either worked alone, in teams or with other project partners who shared similar intentions.

 They used the creative process outlined below to think, discuss and plan the ideas which had begun to emerge in the workshop. The prototype was not a fully finished product but was formed enough to be able to try out from which they could learn and develop as necessary.

To find out more, please click here.

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities.

Theory-U is an innovative model of social change. It stands for an understanding of social innovation that calls people to move outside their familiar assumptions and patterns of behaviour. On the website of the presencing institute they write: “Theory-U proposes that the quality of the results that we create in any kind of social system is a function of the quality of awareness that the participants in the system operate from.“

To this end Theory-U offers a range of social practices or technologies that should support change makers in the process of moving outside their taken for granted assumptions and redirecting their awareness.

Sensing journeys are one of these powerful tools, which have been used extensively as part of organised change initiatives. In our project sensing journeys where an important element to explore the topic of community inclusion.

In order to immerse ourselves in new learning experiences we organised three two-day journeys to good-practice sites of community Inclusion in Hamburg, Madrid and Wales (link to the reports of the sensing journeys) and conducted four half day mini sensing journeys as part of our third multiplication course module in Ostholstein in the North of Germany (Link to the multiplication course).

To find out more, please click here.

Within the New Path to InclUsion Network we used the Theory-U developed by Otto Scharmer and the presencing institute (www.presencing.com) as a framework to guide our learning and activities. 

Prototyping in the New Paths to InclUsion project:

Each of the project partners developed prototypes as a culmination of the multiplication workshop with the intention of creating new practices within their organisation which lead them closer to their objective of building inclusive opportunities through person centred practice. To do this partners either worked alone, in teams or with other project partners who shared similar intentions.

 They used the creative process outlined below to think, discuss and plan the ideas which had begun to emerge in the workshop. The prototype was not a fully finished product but was formed enough to be able to try out from which they could learn and develop as necessary.

Overview:

Prototyping translates an idea or a concept into experimental action. Having established a connection to the source (presencing) and clarified a sense of the future that wants to emerge (crystallizing), prototyping allows an individual or group to explore the future by doing.

Purpose:

So far, we have presented tools and explained the principles that make them work. At this point, the process gets inverted. Use the following principles to determine what you need to do to stay connected to the future that stands in need of you to come into reality and translate this idea, concept, or sense of possibility into action.

Principles:

  1. Crystallize vision and intention: stay connected to the future that stands in need of you to come into reality (Martin Buber). Create a place of silence for yourself every day. Clarify core questions that you want to explore with your prototype.
  2. Form a core team: five people can change the world. Find a small group of fully committed people and cultivate your shared commitment.
  3. 0.8: Iterate, Iterate, Iterate: Fail fast to succeed sooner”, as David Kelley from IDEO says. Do something rough, rapid, and then iterate. Design a tight review structure that accelerates fast feedback.
  4. Platforms and spaces: create “landing strips” for the future that is wanting to emerge. The quality of the holding space determines the quality of the results.
  5. Listen to the universe: always be in dialogue with the Universe. It is a helpful place. Listen to what is emerging from others, from the collective, and from yourself. Take a few minutes each day to review your quality of listening.
  6. Integrate head, heart, and hand: when we prototype living examples by integrating different types of intelligence, we always navigate the process between two major dangers and pitfalls: mindless action and actionless minds.

Uses and Outcomes:

Prototypes are an early draft of what the final result might look like, which means that they often go through several iterations based on the feedback generated from stakeholders. This feedback is then the basis for refining the concept and its underlying assumptions. A prototype is a practical and tested mini version of what later could become a pilot project that can be shared and eventually scaled.

 

Example:

Sonia Holubkova [Slovakia] and Silvia Munoz [Spain] used prototyping to develop the idea for an inclusive community event in their home towns. Their intention was to create a fun day of activities where everyone in the town would be welcome and people would participate together in the planning, organisation and participation. The concept was one of co-support and sharing gifts and skills and being together as equals. In the development of the prototype they considered where they would find local people to support them with the event, where to hold it and how to ensure that everyone would be involved. The first Inclusive Community Event was realised shortly after in September 2015 in Zilina, Slovakia.

 

Set Up:

The tools you use for prototyping depend on the nature of your idea or insight, as well as the needs and context in which you’re operating. Prototyping is a “mini U” process and is specific to each idea and context. Some prototypes are concrete products; others are meetings, processes, services or experiments. Timing will depend on the context and differ depending on the project: a prototype can take a few days, weeks, months or years. You might find it helpful to use one or several of the tools from other parts of the U process (dialogue interviews, sensing journeys, case clinics, etc.) while prototyping.

You might also find the following exercise helpful to align your prototype with the principles outlined above. Worksheet 1 includes questions to help you determine the what (clarify intention) – this worksheet has been amended by John O`Brien.

 

Prototyping Worksheet 1

Brainstorming ideas and selecting the project: Here are seven questions to ask yourself as you brainstorm, select and evolve an idea for prototyping:

  1. Is it relevant? Does it matter to all the key stakeholders involved levels: individually (for the person involved), organizationally, and socially (for the communities involved? Very often, the relevance for each stakeholder is framed in a quite different language and ways.
  2. Is it right? Can you see the whole in the microcosm that you focus on? Get the dimensions of the problem or project definition right. In a prototype you put the spotlight on a few selected details. Select the right ones that address some of the root causes (rather than symptoms). For example, ignoring the patients’ perspective in a health project, the consumers in a sustainable food project or the students in a school project misses the point.
  3. Is it revolutionary? Is it new? Could it change the game? Does it change (some of) the root issues in the system?
  4. Is it rapid? Can you do it quickly? You must be able to develop experiments right away, in order to have enough time to get feedback and adapt (and thus avoid analysis paralysis)
  5. Is it rough? Can you do it on a small scale? Can you do it locally? Let the local context teach you how to get it right. Trust that the right helpers and collaborators will show up when you issue the right kinds of invitations “to the universe”.
  6. Is it relationally effective? Does it leverage the strengths, competencies and possibilities of the existing networks and communities at hand?
  7. Is it replicable - can you scale it? Any innovation hinges upon its replicability, whether or not it can grow to scale. In the context of prototyping, this criterion favors approaches that activate local participation and ownership and excludes those that depend on big infusions of external knowledge, capital, and ownership.